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CentOS配置本地yum源/阿裏雲yum源/163yuan源並配置yum源的優先級

文章TAG: CentOS YUM
時間:2019-09-17來源/作者:Kangvcar Blogs 編輯:源碼庫 文章熱度:0

一、用Centos鏡像搭建本地yum源

由於安裝centos後的默認yum源為centos的官方地址,所以在國內使用很慢甚至無法訪問,所以一般的做法都是把默認的yum源替換成aliyun的yum源或者163等國內的yum源(下文介紹如何配置)。 

但是以上的方法都是需要網絡的,當沒有網絡的時候就無法使用了,所以還有一個常用的方法就是用Centos的iso鏡像搭建本地yum源,這樣安裝軟件的速度就會飛快,缺點是可能有些包沒有。

1.安裝Centos後默認的yum源如下

[root@kangvcar ~]# ll /etc/yum.repos.d/
total 32
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1664 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Base.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1309 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-CR.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 649 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Debuginfo.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 290 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-fasttrack.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 630 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Media.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1331 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Sources.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1952 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Vault.repo

2.把默認yum源備份(可選)

[root@kangvcar ~]# mkdir /opt/centos-yum.bak
[root@kangvcar ~]# mv /etc/yum.repos.d/* /opt/centos-yum.bak/

3.在虛擬機上掛載CentOS鏡像文件

CentOS,yum,源

[root@kangvcar ~]# mount -t iso9660 /dev/sr0 /opt/centos
mount: /dev/sr0 is write-protected, mounting read-only

4.編寫repo文件並指向鏡像的掛載目錄

[root@kangvcar ~]# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/local.repo 
[local]
name=local
baseurl=file:///opt/centos
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0

5.清除緩存

[root@kangvcar ~]# yum clean all
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Cleaning repos: local
Cleaning up everything
Cleaning up list of fastest mirrors
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum makecache    //把yum源緩存到本地,加快軟件的搜索好安裝速度
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum list    //列出了3780個包

二、把默認的CentOS yum源修改成國內的aliyun yum源

阿裏雲官方教程:http://mirrors.aliyun.com/help/centos

1.安裝Centos後默認的yum源如下

[root@kangvcar ~]# ll /etc/yum.repos.d/
total 32
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1664 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Base.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1309 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-CR.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 649 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Debuginfo.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 290 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-fasttrack.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 630 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Media.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1331 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Sources.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1952 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Vault.repo

2.把默認yum源備份(可選)

[root@kangvcar ~]# mkdir /opt/centos-yum.bak
[root@kangvcar ~]# mv /etc/yum.repos.d/* /opt/centos-yum.bak/

3.下載aliyun yum源repo文件(對應自己的係統版本下載即可)

#各係統版本repo文件對應的下載操作
CentOS 5
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-5.repo
CentOS 6
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-6.repo
CentOS 7
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
[root@kangvcar ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release    //查看係統的版本
CentOS Linux release 7.2.1511 (Core)
[root@kangvcar ~]# wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
--2017-06-20 06:43:08-- http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
Resolving mirrors.aliyun.com (mirrors.aliyun.com)... 112.124.140.210, 115.28.122.210
Connecting to mirrors.aliyun.com (mirrors.aliyun.com)|112.124.140.210|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 2573 (2.5K) [application/octet-stream]
Saving to: ‘/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo'
100%[=======================================================================================================>] 2,573    --.-K/s  in 0s   
2017-06-20 06:43:08 (118 MB/s) - ‘/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo' saved [2573/2573]

4.清除緩存

[root@kangvcar ~]# yum clean all
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Cleaning repos: base extras updates
Cleaning up everything
Cleaning up list of fastest mirrors
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum makecache    //把yum源緩存到本地,加快軟件的搜索好安裝速度
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum list    //總共列出了9954個包

三、把默認的CentOS yum源修改成國內的163源

163官方教程:http://mirrors.163.com/.help/centos.html

1.安裝Centos後默認的yum源如下

[root@kangvcar ~]# ll /etc/yum.repos.d/
total 32
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1664 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Base.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1309 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-CR.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 649 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Debuginfo.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 290 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-fasttrack.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 630 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Media.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1331 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Sources.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1952 Dec 9 2015 CentOS-Vault.repo

2.把默認yum源備份(可選)

[root@kangvcar ~]# mkdir /opt/centos-yum.bak
[root@kangvcar ~]# mv /etc/yum.repos.d/* /opt/centos-yum.bak/

3.下載163 yum源repo文件

#各係統版本repo文件對應的下載操作
CentOS 5
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS5-Base-163.repo http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS5-Base-163.repo
CentOS 6
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS6-Base-163.repo http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS6-Base-163.repo
CentOS 7
wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
[root@kangvcar ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release    //查看係統的版本
CentOS Linux release 7.2.1511 (Core)
[root@kangvcar ~]# wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
--2017-06-20 06:29:47-- http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
Resolving mirrors.163.com (mirrors.163.com)... 123.58.173.185, 123.58.173.186
Connecting to mirrors.163.com (mirrors.163.com)|123.58.173.185|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 1572 (1.5K) [application/octet-stream]
Saving to: ‘/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo'
100%[=======================================================================================================>] 1,572    --.-K/s  in 0s   
2017-06-20 06:29:47 (293 MB/s) - ‘/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo' saved [1572/1572]

4.清除緩存

[root@kangvcar ~]# yum clean all
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Cleaning repos: base extras updates
Cleaning up everything
Cleaning up list of fastest mirrors
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum makecache    //把yum源緩存到本地,加快軟件的搜索好安裝速度
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum list    //總共列出了9951個包

四、修改yum源的優先級

ps:當既有本地yum源又有163源的時候,我們在裝軟件包的時候當然希望先用本地的yum源去安裝,本地找不到可用的包時再使用163源去安裝軟件,這裏就涉及到了優先級的問題,yum提供的插件yum-plugin-priorities.noarch可以解決這個問題

1.查看係統是否安裝了優先級的插件

[root@kangvcar ~]# rpm -qa | grep yum-plugin-
yum-plugin-fastestmirror-1.1.31-34.el7.noarch    
//這裏看到沒有安裝yum-plugin-priorities.noarch這個插件
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum search yum-plugin-priorities    
//用search查看是否有此插件可用
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
* base: mirrors.aliyun.com
* extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
* updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
====================================================== N/S matched: yum-plugin-priorities =======================================================
yum-plugin-priorities.noarch : plugin to give priorities to packages from different repos

2.安裝yum-plugin-priorities.noarch插件

[root@kangvcar ~]# yum -y install yum-plugin-priorities.noarch

3.查看插件是否啟用

[root@kangvcar ~]# cat /etc/yum/pluginconf.d/priorities.conf
[main]
enabled = 1
//1為啟用;0為禁用

4.修改本地yum源優先使用

[root@kangvcar ~]# ll /etc/yum.repos.d/
total 8
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 2573 May 15 2015 CentOS-Base.repo
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root  67 Jun 20 06:04 local.repo
//有兩個repo文件
[root@kangvcar ~]# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/local.repo
[local]
name=local
baseurl=file:///opt/centos
enabled=1
gpgcheck=0
priority=1
//在原基礎上加入priority=1 ;數字越小優先級越高
//可以繼續修改其他源的priority值,經測試僅配置本地源的優先級為priority=1就會優先使用本地源了

5.測試

配置優先級前:(使用阿裏雲yum源)
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum -y install vim
Dependencies Resolved
=================================================================================================================================================
Package              Arch             Version                   Repository           Size
=================================================================================================================================================
Installing:
vim-enhanced            x86_64            2:7.4.160-1.el7_3.1             updates            1.0 M
Updating for dependencies:
vim-common             x86_64            2:7.4.160-1.el7_3.1             updates            5.9 M
省略···
配置優先級後:(使用本地yum源)
[root@kangvcar ~]# yum -y install vim
Dependencies Resolved
=================================================================================================================================================
Package                   Arch            Version                Repository         Size
=================================================================================================================================================
Installing:
vim-enhanced                x86_64           2:7.4.160-1.el7            local           1.0 M
Installing for dependencies:
gpm-libs                  x86_64           1.20.7-5.el7              local            32 k
perl                    x86_64           4:5.16.3-286.el7            local           8.0 M
perl-Carp                  noarch           1.26-244.el7              local            19 k
perl-Encode                 x86_64           2.51-7.el7               local           1.5 M
perl-Exporter                noarch           5.68-3.el7               local            28 k
perl-File-Path               noarch           2.09-2.el7               local            26 k
perl-File-Temp               noarch           0.23.01-3.el7             local            56 k
省略···

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